What to Do (and Not Do) for a Jellyfish Sting (2024)

Jellyfish stings can be painful, itchy, and—in extreme cases—deadly. The sting is caused by a reaction to a protein-based venom. Jellyfish release venom from microscopic stingers on their tentacles called nematocysts.

Jellyfish sting treatment consists of these simple steps:

  • Rinse the area.
  • Remove the tentacles.
  • Bathe in hot water.
  • Apply medication and ice as needed.

Some people can have a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis to jellyfish stings. Anaphylaxis symptoms occur suddenly and can progress quickly from a runny nose and a skin rash to throat tightness, trouble breathing, fainting, and cardiac arrest. Anaphylaxis needs to be treated quickly with an epinephrine injection.

This article discusses jellyfish stings. It also details the symptoms of a jellyfish sting, jellyfish sting remedies for the pain, and signs of an emergency.

What to Do (and Not Do) for a Jellyfish Sting (1)

Common Symptoms of a Jellyfish Sting

Though it’s commonly reported that humans are stung by jellyfish 150 million times a year, it’s not clear where this figure came from, nor what the actual incidence is. Nonetheless, jellyfish stings are common. Most are mild and readily treatable at home.

Jellyfish tentacles have thousands of nematocysts that can pierce the skin and inject venom. Depending on the species and the venom dose, a sting can cause reactions ranging from mild to severe and even life-threatening.

The common symptoms of a mild jellyfish sting may include:

  • Pain, which may be intense and may radiate outward from the site of the sting
  • Red or purplish “track marks” along the route of contact with the tentacle
  • Local itching and swelling
  • Rash

The amount of time a jellyfish sting lasts can vary by species. Stings from small bluebottle jellyfish may last for one hour. A sting from the Australian sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri)—described by some as the most lethal jellyfish in the world—can be deadly, especially in small children.

What a Jellyfish Sting Looks and Feels Like

A jellyfish sting is commonly described as a sharp, burning, stinging, or tingling sensation on your skin. Often, the sting will be accompanied by a throbbing pain radiating upward and outward on the arm, leg, or torso.

The sting often leaves tentacle impressions that may be red, brown, or purple track marks. The entire area may be pink, red, or purple.

What Are Sea Lice Bites and How Are They Treated?

How to Treat a Jellyfish Sting

Rapid treatment of jellyfish stings can reduce pain, keep systemic symptoms from getting worse, and lower the risk of complications (including infections).

Once first aid is delivered, medications can help alleviate pain and swelling. Severe reactions need to be treated in a hospital.

First Aid

There are three steps commonly recommended for first aid treatment of a jellyfish sting:

  1. Rinse: Rinse away the tentacles using hot water if possible. If hot water isn’t available, use salt water rather than fresh. Freshwater may worsen the pain.
  2. Remove tentacles: Peel offany remaining tentacles with a gloved hand or tweezers. Avoid using bare hands as you risk getting stung again.
  3. Take a hot bath: This can help extract some of the venom from the wound. The general rule is to bathe at the hottest possible temperature you can tolerate (at least 108 degrees F and up to 140 degrees F).

For jellyfish stings near the eyes, thoroughly rinse the eye with seawater and then get to the emergency department as soon as possible. The healthcare team will flush your eye with saline (a mixture of salt and water similar to tears), remove nematocysts, and give you medicated eye drops and pain medication. They might also recommend seeing an opthalmologist—a doctor specializing in eye care.

Over-the-Counter Medications

Once you have removed the tentacles and immersed the wound in hot water, there are things you can do to control pain and promote healing. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications include:

  • Calamine lotion to cool the skin and dry oozing skin
  • Topical corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone cream to reduce inflammation and pain
  • Tylenol (acetaminophen) to alleviate pain
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Advil (ibuprofen) and Aleve (naproxen) to reduce pain and swelling

An ice pack is also an effective remedy for symptoms of a jellyfish sting, including pain, swelling, and itching. Place a cloth between the ice pack and your skin, and apply the ice for no longer than 15 minutes to prevent frostbite.

Signs of Severe Reactions

There is a lot still unknown about the causes of a severe reaction to jellyfish stings, in part because there are over 2,000 species of jellyfish around the world.

In some cases, the symptoms may be caused by the venom itself (typically a neurotoxic reaction affecting the heart and respiration). In others, a sting may provoke a severe reaction known as anaphylaxis, in which the immune system overreacts to the venom. Both may be involved and are often difficult to tell apart.

In most cases, a severe reaction will occur immediately or soon after the sting. However, if anaphylaxis is involved, reactions have been known to be delayed for days and even weeks.

Symptoms of a severe jellyfish sting that require immediate medical care include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Hives
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Muscle cramps
  • Blistering skin
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Pain in various parts of the body
  • Dizziness or fainting

If you or someone you are with experience any of these symptoms, call 911 or have someone rush you to the nearest emergency department.

If left untreated, anaphylaxis can lead to shock, respiratory obstruction due to swelling, cardiac or respiratory arrest, or death.

Treatment of Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is treated as a medical emergency in a hospital. The treatment starts with an injection of epinephrine (adrenaline), which helps relax the airways so you can breathe easier and tightens blood vessels to increase blood pressure. This latter effect helps reduce the risk of shock.

Afterward, you may be given oxygen, intravenous (IV) fluids, and medications like cortisone, albuterol, and antihistamines to improve breathing and/or halt the allergic response.

What Not to Do

There are a lot of myths and misconceptions about how you should treat jellyfish stings. Few of these homespun remedies have any research to support their use and may cause more harm than good.

For example, some people recommend rinsing a jellyfish sting with white vinegar to relieve pain, but the evidence is split on whether this actually helps. The benefits appear to differ by species.

A 2017 study of the lion’s mane jellyfish suggests that rinsing a sting with seawater may actually increase the release of venom while rinsing with vinegar has no such effect. By contrast, rinsing a bluebottle jellyfish sting with vinegar often makes the sting worse.

Other things you should NOT do to treat a jellyfish sting include:

  • Scraping out stingers
  • Rinsing with cold, fresh water
  • Applying meat tenderizer
  • Applying alcohol
  • Rubbing the sting with a towel
  • Applying pressure bandages

To Pee or Not to Pee?

Do not pee on a jellyfish sting. Despite what you may have heard or seen on TV, peeing on a jellyfish sting may make the pain worse and will do little if anything to “neutralize” the venom. Moreover, peeing on a tentacle may cause it to contract, injecting more venom into the skin.

Avoiding Jellyfish Stings

Avoiding jellyfish stings is undoubtedly a better strategy than treating them. There are several things you can do to protect yourself:

  • Prepare: Before venturing out into the sea, learn which species of jellyfish are common in the area, how dangerous they are, and what to do in the event of a sting.
  • Plan: Jellyfish are attracted to warmer water and will often appear seasonally as the tidal flow changes. Contact local authorities or lifeguards about when jellyfish season is at your destination.
  • Wear a protective suit: If you are visiting an area where jellyfish are common, you can protect yourself by getting a “skin suit” (also known as a “stinger suit”) available at many diving shops. They are lightweight but act as an effective barrier if you brush up against a jellyfish.
  • Get a jellyfish repellent: If you are really worried about jellyfish, there are some commercially available lotions that are said to repel jellyfish. Although it is unclear how effective they are, many customers swear by them. There are even suntan lotions that contain jellyfish repellent.

Summary

Jellyfish stings are relatively common. They are usually mild and can be treated by thoroughly washing the area with seawater, removing stingers, bathing in hot water, and using ice and pain medication. Occasionally people have a severe reaction to a jellyfish sting, including hives, nausea or vomiting, difficulty breathing or swallowing, rapid heart rate, or anaphylaxis. These severe symptoms require immediate medical attention.

It is important to know what to do and not do if you get a jellyfish sting and, when possible, avoid getting stung by a jellyfish.

What to Do (and Not Do) for a Jellyfish Sting (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Arline Emard IV

Last Updated:

Views: 5369

Rating: 4.1 / 5 (72 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Arline Emard IV

Birthday: 1996-07-10

Address: 8912 Hintz Shore, West Louie, AZ 69363-0747

Phone: +13454700762376

Job: Administration Technician

Hobby: Paintball, Horseback riding, Cycling, Running, Macrame, Playing musical instruments, Soapmaking

Introduction: My name is Arline Emard IV, I am a cheerful, gorgeous, colorful, joyous, excited, super, inquisitive person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.